Impacts of Groundwater Development on Poverty Reduction and Alleviation in Nigeria

Adenifesimi A. Oni, Ahzegbobor P. Aizebeokhai

Abstract


Water is one of the most important resources on earth and a basic life need; all human activities towards social-economic developments depend on the availability of water. Groundwater accounts for about 0.06% of Earth’s available water and represents about 98% of the fresh water readily available to humans. Harnessing this important resource for productive uses such as irrigation, domestic and industrial water supplies would help to reduce poverty and vulnerability to water borne disease particularly in rural settlements. Groundwater development, exploitation, and supply chain in Nigeria is relatively low and needs a major transformation. Groundwater resource is required to meet the need of the rapid growth in population, urbanization, industrialization and competition for economic development. Although the management of groundwater in Nigeria is lagging behind the pace of development, and often, very little control is exercised in its exploitation, groundwater has gainfully impact on the rate and level of poverty and has transformed rural economies in most parts of the country, thereby alleviating poverty, reduce the rate of water related diseases and enhance economic growth. This paper emphasizes the impacts of groundwater developments on poverty reduction in Nigeria. The opportunities and economic sustainability presented by groundwater resource development are presented. Integrated approaches/strategies for sustainable management of groundwater resources with relevant recommendations for groundwater resource management are advocated.

Keywords


Groundwater resources; Development; Poverty reduction; Economic growth

Full Text:

PDF

References


D. Adekile and O. Olabode, Study of Public and Private Borehole Drilling in Nigeria, http://rwsn.ch/documentation/skatdocumentation.2017-05-16.3173940374 (2009).

S.M.A. Adelana, P.I. Olasehinde and P. Vrbka, Groundwater recharge in the Cretaceous and Tertiary sediment aquifers of northwestern Nigeria, using hydrochemical and isotopic techniques, in E. Bocanegra, D. Martinez and H. Massone (eds.), Groundwater and Human Development, Mar de Plata, Argentina, pp. 907 – 915 (2002).

S.M.A. Adelana, P.I. Olasehinde and P. Vrbka, A quantitative estimation of groundwater recharge in parts of Sokoto Basin, Nigeria, Journal Environmental Hydrology 14 (5) (2006), 1 – 17.

S.M.A. Adelana, P.I. Olasehinde and P. Vrbka, Identification of groundwater recharge conditions in crystalline basement rock aquifers of the southwestern Nigeria, in Special UNESCO Volume: Recharge systems for protecting and enhancing groundwater resources, IHP-VI, Series on Groundwater No. 13, 649-655, UNESCO, Paris (2006).

S.M.A. Adelana, P.I. Olasehinde, R.B. Bale, P. Vrbka, A.E. Edet and I.B. Goni, An overview of the geology and hydrogeology of Nigeria, in S.M.A. Adelana and A.M. MacDonald (eds.), Applied Groundwater Studies in Africa, IAH Selected Papers in Hydrogeology, Vol. 13, 171 – 197, CRC Press/Balkema, London (2008).

W.A. Abderrahman, Should intensive use of non-renewable groundwater resources always be rejected? in R. Llamas and E. Custodio (eds.), Intensive Use of Groundwater: Challenges and Opportunities, Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 191 – 203 (2003).

C.O. Ajayi and M. Hassan, The delineation of the aquifer overlying the basement complex in western part of the Kubanni Basin of Zaria (Nigeria), Journal of Mining and Geology 26 (1) (1990), 117 – 125.

O. Ajayi and O.O. Abegunrin, Borehole failures in crystalline rocks of south-western Nigeria, Geojournal 34 (1994), 397 – 405.

C.N. Akujieze, S.J.L. Coker and G.E. Oteze, Groundwater in Nigeria-a millennium experience, distribution, practice, problems and solutions, Hydrogeol. J. 11 (2003), 259 – 274.

An integrated approach to sustainable groundwater development and management in Nigeria (PDF Download Available), available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/ 228410802_An_integrated_approach_to_sustainable_groundwater_development_and_management_in_Nigeria [accessed May 23, 2017].

British Geological Survey, Reay. Sheet 115E (Scotland), Bedrock and Superficial Deposits, 1:50 000 Geology Series (Keyworth, Nottingham: British Geological Survey) (2003).

J.Y. Dun Gwom, Partnerships in Planning and Environmental Management in Nigeria, Journal of Environmental Sciences (1999), p. 3.

A.E. Edet, Hydrogeology of parts of Cross River State, Nigeria: Evidence from Aero-Geological and Surface Resistivity Studies, PhD Dissertation, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria, p. 316 (1992).

A.E. Edet, C.S. Okereke, S.C. Teme and E.O. Esu, Application of remote sensing data to groundwater exploration: A case study of Cross River State, south-eastern Nigeria, Hydrogeol. J. 6 (1998), 394 – 404.

A.E. Edet and C.S. Okereke, Assessment of hydrogeological conditions in basement aquifers of Precambrian Oban massif, south-eastern Nigeria, J. Appl. Geophy. 36 (1997), 195 – 204.

L.K. Fellows and M.J. Farah, Ventromedial frontal cortex mediates affective shifting in humans: evidence from a reversal learning paradigm, Brain. 126 (2003), 1830 – 1837.

P.H. Gleick, Global freshwater resources: Soft path solutions for the 21st century, Science 302 (2003), (1524).

N.P. Iloeje, A New Geography of Nigeria, Longman, Nigeria, p. 201 (1981).

S. Janakarajan and M. Moench, Are wells a potential threat to farmers’ well-being? Case of deteriorating Groundwater Irrigation in Tamil Nadu, Economic and Political Weekly 16 (September 2006), 3977 – 3987 .

JICA, The project for review and update of Nigeria national water resources master plan, Vol. 2, Japan International Cooperation Agency: Yachiyo Engineering Co., Ltd.; CTI Engineering International Co., Ltd.; Sanyu Consultants Inc. [JICA report PDF] (2014).

Ministry of Water Resources, National Water Resources Master Plan (2013).

M. Moench, Groundwater and Poverty: Exploring the Connections, in: Llamas MR (2003).

S. Menon, Groundwater management: need for sustainable approach, in Proceedings of the seminar on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater, December, 1998, Central Groundwater Board, Ministry of Water Resources, New Delhi (1998), www.wikipedia.org.

A.N. Ndem, Poverty to Sustainable Development (A Community-based Approach), University of Calabar Printing Press, Calabar, Nigeria (2008).

H.O. Nwankwoala and P.C. Mmom, Groundwater utilization versus millennium development goals: Implications for sustainable development, Journal of Nigerian Environmental Society 4 (2008), 34 – 42.

M.E. Offodile, Groundwater Study and Development in Nigeria, Mecon Services Ltd, Jos, Nigeria (2002).

C.S. Okereke, E.O. Esu and A.E. Edet, Determination of potential groundwater sites using geological and geophysical techniques in the Cross River State, southern Nigeria, J. Afr. Earth Sci. 27 (1) (1998), 149 – 163.

M.O. Olorunfemi, The hydrogeological implication of topographic variation with overburden thickness in basement area of S.W. Nigeria, J. Min. Geol. 26 (1) (1990), 145 – 152,

M.E. Offodile, An Approach to Groundwater Study in Nigeria, Mecon Services Ltd., Jos, Nigeria, p. 247 (1992).

G.E. Oteze, Management approaches for Nigeria’s water resources, J. Min. Geol. 42 (1) (2006), 15 – 20.

O.E. Oteze, Management approaches for Nigeria’s water resources, Nigeria J. Mineral Geol. 42 (2006), 21 – 30.

L. Oyebande, Power generation and development in the Nigeria’s power sector, Int. J. Hydropower Dams 6 (2004), 213 – 219.

U.C. Okoye and E.O. Onyukwu, Sustaining poverty reduction efforts through inter-agency collaboration in Nigeria, in K. Omeje (Ed.), State, Society Relations in Nigeria: Democratic Consolidation, Conflicts and Reforms, pp. 49 – 66, London (2007).

M.O. Oyawoye, The Basement complex of Nigeria, in T.F.G. Dessauvagie and A.J. Whiteman (eds.), African Geology, University of Ibadan Press, Ibadan, pp. 67 – 99 (1970).

S.W. Petters, Central West African Cretaceous – Tertiary benthic Foraminifera and stratigraphy, Paloeontographica A. 179 (1982), 1 – 104.

K. Rijswlk, Small community water supplies, IRC Technical Paper Series, No. 18, The Netherlands (1981).

P. Sanyal and S. Babu, Policy benchmarking and tracking the Agricultural Policy Environment in Nigeria, Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP), Report No. NSSP 005, p. 23 (2010).

UN-DESA, World economic situation and prospects 2011: update as of mid-2012, New York: United Nations (2012).

UN/WWAP (United Nations/ World Water Assessment Programme), UN World Water Development Report: Water for people, water for life, UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) and Berghahn Books, Paris, New York and Oxford (2003).

UNICEF/WHO, Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, Water for life: Making it happen, World Health Organization and United Nations International Children Education Fund, http://www.wssinfo.org (2005).

K.O. Uma and K.M. Onuoha, Groundwater resources of the Lower Benue Trough, Southern Nigeria, in C. Ofoegbu (ed.), The Evolution of the Benue Basin (1990), pp. 115 – 134, Consultants, 1985.

P. Webb and M. Iskandarani, Water Insecurity and the Poor: Issues and Research Needs, Discussion Papers on Development Policy No. 2, Bonn, Germany: Center for Development Research (1998).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26713%2Fjims.v9i2.746

eISSN 0975-5748; pISSN 0974-875X