Earth-Space Rain Attenuation Prediction: Its Impact at Ku, Ka and V-band Over Some Equatorial Stations

T. V. Omotosho, S. A. Akinwumi, O. O. Ometan, M. O. Adewusi, J. S. Mandeep, M. Abdullah


Attenuation due to rain predictive models have been used to calculate the impact of rainfall on satellite communication for six stations in Malaysia. The impact of rainfall is very important for designing a modern satellite system for heavy rainfall climatic regions like Malaysia, with large annual rainfall accumulation exceeding 3000 mm and rainfall rate exceeding 150 mm/h at Ku (12/14 GHz), Ka (20/30 GHz) and V (40/50 GHz) bands. The present result shows that the avalibility of link for 99.99% at the three bands for uplink and downlink to Malaysian Communication Satellite (MEASAT-3a) is not practicable. The results suggest link availability of 99.9% for Ku-uplink and Ka downlink, while 99% for Ka uplink and 99% for V band uplink and downlink due to high annual rainfall rates for most of the stations. The overall result shows that the impact of heavy rainfall on satellite communication will be more severe in the Eastern part than the Western of Malaysia.


Rain accumulation; Rainfall rate; Rain attenuation; Ku, Ka and V bands; Satellite communication; Earth space link

Full Text:



J. Chebil and T.A. Rahman, Rain rate statistical conversion for the prediction of rain attenuation in Malaysia, Electronics Letters 35 (12) (June 1999), 1019–1021.

R.K. Crane and P.C. Robinson, ACTS propagation experiment: Rain-rate distribution observations and prediction model comparisons, Proc. IEEE 85 (6) (1997), 946.

R.K. Crane, Prediction of attenuation by rain, IEEE Trans. Comm. COM-28 9 (Sept. 1980), 1717 – 1733.

E.J. Dutton, H.T. Dougherty and R.F. Martin, Prediction of European rainfall and link performance coefficients at 8 to 30 GHz, NTIS, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1974, Rep. AD/A-000804.

L.D. Emiliani, L. Luini and C. Caposni, Analysis and parameterization of methodologies for the conversion of rain-rate cumulative distributions from various integration times to one minute, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 51 (3) (June 2009), 70 – 84.

J.A. García-López and J. Peiró, Simple rain-attenuation-prediction technique for terrestrial radio links, Electronics Letters 19 (1983), 879 – 880.

J.A. García-López, J.M. Hernando and J.M. Selga, Simple rain attenuation prediction method for satellite radio links, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 36 (3) (1988), 444 – 448.

J.A. García-López, J.M. Hernando and J.M. Selga, Simple rain attenuation prediction method for satellite radio links, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 36 (3) (1988), 444 – 448.

R.A. Harris (editor in chief), COST Action 255, Radiowaves propagation modeling for SATCOM services at Ku-Band and above, European Space Agency publication Division Noordwijk, Netherlands (2002).

C. Ito and Y. Hosoya, Proposal of a Global Conversion Method for Different Integration Time Rain Rates by UsingMDistribution and Regional Climatic Parameters, Electronics and Communications in Japan, Part 1, 89 (4) (2006), 1 – 9.

ITU-R Recommendation, Propagation data and prediction methods required for the design of Earth-space telecommunication system, Geneva, International Telecommunications Union, Radiocommunications Sector, 2009, 618-9.

ITU-R Recommendation, Characteristics of precipitation for propagation modelling Geneva, International Telecommunications Union, Radiocommunications Sector, 2007, 837-5.

ITU-R Recommendation, Specific attenuation model for rain used in prediction methods Geneva, International Telecommunications Union, Radiocommunications Sector, 2005, 838.

ITU-R Recommendation, Rain height model for prediction methods, Geneva, International Telecommunications Union, Radiocommunications Sector, 2001, 839-3.

Y. Karasawa, M. Yamada and J.E. Allnutt, A new prediction method for tropospheric propagation on earth-space paths, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation AP-36 (11) (1988), 1608 – 1614.

Malays Travel Guide: “Climate of Malaysia Circle of Asia”,, retrieved 2008-07-28.

J.S. Mandeep and S.I.S. Hasssan, Slant-path rain attenuation predictions in tropical regions, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 68 (2006), 865 – 868.

Marshall Cavendish Corporation, World and Its Peoples: Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Brunei, New York, Marshall Cavendish Corporation, p. 1156, 1158 – 1161, 1164, 1166 – 1171 (2008).

F. Moupfouma and L. Martin, Point rainfall rate cumulative distribution function valid at various locations, Electronic Letters 29 (17) (August 1993), 1503 – 1505.

K.L. Restrepo, D. Emiliani and C. Fradique-Mendez, Rain attenuation prediction in tropical zones, theoretical analysis, measurement campaigns and model comparisons, 20th ICSSC, Montreal, Canada (2002).

P. Rice and N. Holmberg, Cumulative time statistics of surface-point rainfall rate, IEEE Transactions on Communications 21 (10) (October 1973), 1131 – 1136.

Saw and Swee-Hock, The population of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (2007), 1 – 2.

B. Segal, The influence of rainguage integration time on measured rainfall-intensity distribution functions, J. Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 3 (December 1986), 662 – 671.

Weather phenomena, Malaysian Meteorological Department, archived from the original on 2008-03-20,,, retrieved 2008-07-31.


eISSN 0975-5748; pISSN 0974-875X