Intrafamilial Pinna Shape Variations of Fern Species Under Family Thelypteridaceae and Nephrolepidaceae Using Elliptic Fourier Analysis

Lady Jane G. Morilla, Muhmin Michael E. Manting, Cesar G. Demayo

Abstract


Fern species under family Thelypteridaceae and Nephrolepidaceae tend to have similarities when it comes to leaf morphology. Due to their cohesive morphological appearance, species under these two families are hard to distinguish from the other. While qualitative descriptions in leaf shape could aid in understanding the identification, evolution and development of ferns, it is argued that the quantitative description of the shape of the pinna is a good measure in the classification of ferns by delineating species. This study was therefore conducted to quantitatively describe the pinna shape of five species of ferns under family Thelypteridaceae and four species under family Nephrolepidaeceae by Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA). Significant shape variations were observed within and between species specifically in width, apex and base of the pinna. Species found on shaded habitat were observed to have broader pinna lamina compared to elongated and narrow pinna of fern species found on open areas. Light availability is argued to possibly influenced the pinna shapes of the ferns. Results of this study have shown the importance of EFA in the quantitative description of biological shape that aid in understanding the relationships of the fern species.


Keywords


Classification; Leaf apex; Leaf base; Habitat; Morphology

Full Text:

PDF

References


A. Vasco, R.C. Moran and B.A. Ambrose, The evolution, morphology, and development of fern leaves, Frontiers in Plant Science 4 (2013), 345.

C.R. Fraser-Jenkins, A brief comparison of modern pteridophyte classifications (families and genera in India), Indian Fern J. 26(2009), 107 – 126

M. Christenhusz, X. Zhang and H. Schneider, A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns, Phytotaxa 19 (2011), 7 – 54.

Y.X. Lin, Z.Y. Li, K. Iwatsuki and A.R. Smith, Thelypteridaceae, in Flora of China, Z.Y. Wu, P.H. Raven and D.Y. Hong (eds.), Vol. 2–3 (2013), pp. 319 – 396.

J. Neto, G. Meyer, D. Jones and A. Samal, Plant species identification using Elliptic Fourier leaf shape analysis, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 50(2) (2006), 121 – 134.

H. Iwata, H. Nesumi, S. Ninomiya, Y. Takano and Y. Ukai, Diallel analysis of leaf shape variations of citrus varieties based on elliptic fourier descriptors, Breed. Sci. 52(2) (2002), 89 – 94.

H. Iwata and Y. Ukai, SHAPE: A computer program package for quantitative evaluation of biological shapes based on elliptic Fourier descriptors, Journal of Heredity 93 (2002), 384 – 385.

F.P. Kuhl and C.R. Giardina, Elliptic Fourier features of a closed contour, Comp. Graph ImaProc. 18 (1982), 236 – 258.

N. Furuta, S. Ninomiya, S. Takahashi, H. Ohmori and Y. Ukai, Quantitative evaluation of soybean (Glycine max L., Merr.) leaflet shape by principal component scores based on elliptic Fourier descriptor, Genetic Resources Div., National Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Suwon (1995), 441 – 707.

J. Dkhar and A. Pareek, What determines a leaf’s shape?, EvoDevo 5 (2014), 47.

H. Tsukaya, Leaf shape: genetic controls and environmental factors, Int. J. Dev. Biol. 49 (2005), 547 – 555.

F. Xu, W. Guo, W. Xu, Y. Wei and R. Wang, Leaf morphology correlates with water and light availability: What consequences for simple and compound leaves?, Progress in Natural Science 19 (2009), 12.

J. Watling, Photosynthesis in Sun and Shade, Macmillan Education Australia Pty Ltd., Melbourne, Australia (1999).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26713%2Fjims.v9i4.1010

eISSN 0975-5748; pISSN 0974-875X